The number eight joined the Warriors in 2010 and has gone on to make 138 appearances, helping the club win the 2015 Pro12 title and being named skipper in 2017.
Glasgow have been busy signing up players, with Wilson the 13th player to commit his future to the club.
The 28-year-old has also won 37 caps for Scotland, taking part in the 2015 World Cup, and is currently vice-captain to fellow back-rower John Barclay.
Wilson's new deal will see him complete a decade at Scotstoun and he is now looking forward to helping take the Warriors to further heights in the coming years.
"I'm really happy to be staying in Glasgow for at least another two years," he told Warriors TV. "Glasgow has become home for my family and I love the city and the club.
"I've seen us go from strength to strength since playing my first game at Firhill eight years ago and I can't wait to see it grow even more and be a part of it.
"I'm looking forward to pushing on in Europe in the coming seasons with a really strong group of lads that we have here and continuing to enjoy playing rugby with my mates."