The ride-hailing app has been issued the permit by the Department of Motor Vehicles in California almost two years after one of its self-driving cars was involved in a fatal crash in Arizona.
Although the firm scaled back on its autonomous car operations after the accident, the new permit - which has also been granted to 65 other transport companies - is the next step in reviving the programme.
The state of California will allow firms to test self-driving technology as long as there is a backup driver in the vehicle.
In a statement, Uber said: "We do not have an update as to exactly when we'll resume autonomous testing.
"Receiving our testing permit through the California Department of Motor Vehicles is a critical step towards that end in Uber's home city".
Last year, prosecutors ruled that Uber wasn't criminally liable for the crash when Elaine Herzberg, 49, died in March 2018 after a collision with a Volvo XC90, which was using the self-driving technology.
An investigation found the car's backup driver, Rafaela Vasquez, had taken her eyes off the road just before the collision, and records showed she was also streaming a TV show on her phone.