The US President's post - in which he warned that "when the looting starts, the shooting starts" - was hidden by Twitter, but was displayed on Facebook.
Following a meeting with Zuckerberg - who previously defended the decision not to remove the controversial post - the civil rights leaders issued a joint statement.
It read: "We are disappointed and stunned by Mark's incomprehensible explanations for allowing the Trump posts to remain up.
"He did not demonstrate understanding of historic or modern-day voter suppression and he refuses to acknowledge how Facebook is facilitating Trump's call for violence against protesters.
"Mark is setting a very dangerous precedent for other voices who would say similar harmful things on Facebook."
Following the meeting, a Facebook spokesman said: "We're grateful that leaders in the civil rights community took the time to share candid, honest feedback with Mark and Sheryl [Sandberg, Facebook's COO].
"It is an important moment to listen, and we look forward to continuing these conversations."