The 34-year-old hooker made the announcement to the Australian Broadcasting Corp, stating now is the "right time" to step aside, with flanker Michael Hooper expected to take over the captaincy of the Wallabies.
"I think it's the right time to call time on my career at this level," said Moore, who has played 120 Tests.
Moore made his debut in 2005, going on to play in three World Cups, and admits it has been a "very tough" decision that he has been pondering for the last few months.
Moore also confirmed that injuries were not a factor in his decision.
"It has been a big part of my life and it means a lot to me playing for Australia," he told the ABC. "I felt it is the right time to finish the year strongly and then let the next crop of players take the team forward."