The powerful forward, who has won 30 caps for Scotland, has been a key figure in Glasgow's success over recent seasons and especially in their title-winning campaign in 2014-15.
With new head coach Dave Rennie taking over from now Scotland boss Gregor Townsend, the New Zealander has confirmed Wilson as his new skipper.
The 28-year-old is delighted to have earned the role and is now relishing getting started with the new season, with the target being another push for the title.
He told BBC Scotland: "I can already tell by what Dave's saying that our goal will be to win the league - that'll be the first thing.
"We want to finish top of that conference and go on to win the league; we're not here to partake. Champions Cup, we want to go better than we did last year [a quarter-final defeat by eventual winners Saracens]."